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Abstract Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures , the once widespread bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus , has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than , years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood.

As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death.

Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in. Lead ingestion as a potential contributing factor to the decline in vulture populations in southern Africa.

Vulture populations in southern Africa have been on the decline for years, which unlike the Asian vulture crisis, has no one specific cause. Reasons attributable are deliberate and secondary poisonings, drowning, power line injuries, electrocutions, traditional medicine "muti" trade and calcium deficiencies. However, lead toxicity as a potential causal factor is hardly mentioned. The potential for lead toxicity needs to be considered as substantial game hunting occurs in the region with little regulatory control on bullet types. Results were compared to previous published ranges indicative of background exposure vultures Gyps africanus AWBV than Cape vultures G.

Very similar exposures resulted irrespective of the birds being in captivity or under wild, free-roaming conditions. With no relationship being present for the latter factors, we believe that this is evidence that the portion of southern African vultures being exposed to unknown source of lead, which we suggest arises from leaded ammunition.

Richard Halliburton's Bearded Tales. Fusing the concept of "the beard " with the genre of the tall tale to theorize bearded tales deepens our understanding of closet eloquence, or rhetorical repertories of sexual passing in U. An examination of adventurer-writer-lecturer Richard Halliburton's sexual provenance and bestselling travel tale, "The Royal Road to Romance" ,…. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba. A total of vultures were tallied in km 3. Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond m from the transect road.

Density of vultures observed within m of the road along the transect route was 0. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods H and H. McNichols, J. Gu, A. Nozik, A. Sellinger, G. Galli, M. Crisp, J. Gu, B. Chernomodik, G.

Pach, A. Marshall, J. Turner, M. Beard , "Multiple exciton generation for photoelectrochemical hydrogen. Nature Photography - Vultures. The bird is one of more than native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles that call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

e-book Le grandi battaglie della storia (Oscar bestsellers Vol. 2328) (Italian Edition)

Exhumation of food by turkey vulture. The success of Turkey Vultures Cathartes aura as forest scavengers is largely due to their highly developed sense of smell Owre and Nothington Stager conducted a set of experiments with ethyl mercaptan which confirmed the ability of Turkey Vultures to locate odors when no visible object was associated with them.

Turkey Vultures fly The microbiome of New World vultures. Vultures are scavengers that fill a key ecosystem niche, in which they have evolved a remarkable tolerance to bacterial toxins in decaying meat. Here we report the first deep metagenomic analysis of the vulture microbiome. Through face and gut comparisons of 50 vultures representing two species, we demonstrate a remarkably conserved low diversity of gut microbial flora.

The gut samples contained an average of 76 operational taxonomic units OTUs per specimen, compared with OTUs on the facial skin. Clostridia and Fusobacteria, widely pathogenic to other vertebrates, dominate the vulture 's gut microbiota. We reveal a likely faecal-oral-gut route for their origin.


DNA of prey species detectable on facial swabs was completely degraded in the gut samples from most vultures , suggesting that the gastrointestinal tracts of vultures are extremely selective. Our findings show a strong adaption of vultures and their bacteria to their food source, exemplifying a specialized host-microbial alliance. Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africa's endangered vulture species. Veterinary diclofenac has been responsible for the devastation of three species of Gyps vulture on the Indian subcontinent, and it is now regarded as one of the worst environmental contaminants in the recent past.

While measures have been taken to control the manufacture of veterinary diclofenac in South Asia, the promotion of diclofenac on the African continent poses a risk to vultures in this region.


In Southern Africa, the species of greatest conservation concern is the Cape Griffon Vulture Gyps coprotheres , as only breeding pairs remain in the wild. The objective of this study was to test if this species is toxicologically sensitive to diclofenac. In a single dose-toxicity study, two adult Cape Griffon Vultures with severe injuries, that were considered to have a very poor prognostic outcome, were dosed intravenously with diclofenac at 0.

The changes in the clinical pathology were compared to the normal reference range established for 24 healthy Cape Griffon Vultures. Both birds died within 48h of dosing. The clinical signs, clinical pathology, gross pathology and histopathological finding were typical for diclofenac toxicity.

It would appear that the sensitivity of the Cape Griffon is similar to that of their Asian counterparts and the African White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus. Diclofenac is almost certainly toxic to all Gyps vultures species and strong efforts must be taken to ensure that veterinary diclofenac products are not licensed or introduced to the African continent.

William Bartram described the Painted Vulture Vultur sacra as a new species in his book on travels in Florida and other southeastern states. However, no specimen of this bird survives, and it has not been reported by any subsequent ornithologist.

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Bartram's detailed description is not presently endorsed by the American Ornithologists' Union and has been widely regarded as a myth, a misdescribed King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa Linnaeus , a misdescribed Northern Caracara Caracara cheriway Jacquin , or a garbled mixture of species. In fact, his description bears almost no resemblance to a Northern Caracara, but it does match the King Vulture in all important respects except tail color which is uniform dark brown in all ages and sexes of King Vultures but was white with a dark brown or black tip in Bartram's description.

Most 20th century ornithologists commenting on Bartram's bird have been reluctant to accept his description because of the tail-color discrepancy. Only McAtee concluded that his description could be fully accurate as written, indicating a bird closely related to, but different from, a typical King Vulture. Paralleling Bartram's description is an apparently independent account and painting of a vulture of uncertain geographic origin by Eleazar Albin Details of Albin's description, including tail color, are very similar to those of Bartram's description.

The only discrepancies are minor differences in color of softparts and tail that seem explicable as intraspecific variation. Available evidence suggests that Bartram knew nothing of Albin's description, and if so, Albin's bird provides quite persuasive support for the validity of Bartram's bird. Equally important, none of the arguments offered historically against the validity of the Painted Vulture is persuasive when examined closely. Together, these and other factors make a strong case for acceptance of Bartram's Painted Vulture as a historic resident of northern Florida and.

Microbiological Laboratory Hazard of Bearded Men. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that a bearded man subjects his family and friends to risk of infection if his beard is contaminated by infectious microorganisms while he is working in a microbiological laboratory.

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Bearded and unbearded men were tested with Serratia marcescens and Bacillus subtilis var. Contact aerosol transmission from a contaminated beard on a mannequin to a suitable host was evaluated with both Newcastle disease virus and Clostridium botulinum toxin, type A. The experiments showed that beards retained microorganisms and toxin despite washing with soap and water. Although washing reduced the amount of virus or toxin, a sufficient amount remained to produce disease upon contact with a suitable host.

Gli antichi Greci (Atlanti del sapere junior

Images Fig. Turkey vulture and California condor. Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline.